Vulnerability Note VU#887409

JasPer memory corruption vulnerabilities

Original Release date: 09 Dec 2011 | Last revised: 14 Jun 2012

Overview

Some versions of JasPer contain multiple vulnerabilities that may allow a remote, unauthenticated attacker to execute arbitrary code.

Description

JasPer fails to properly decode marker segments and other sections in malformed JPEG2000 files. Malformed inputs can cause heap buffer overflows which in turn may result in execution of attacker-controlled code.

CVE-2011-4516: src/libjasper/jpc/jpc_cs.c: jpc_cox_getcompparms

jpc_cox_getcomparms is called as part of the decoding of a coding style default (COD) marker segment. The function populates a parameter struct (jpc_msparms_t) that is contained in a marker segment struct (jpc_ms_t). jpc_cox_getcompparms contains a loop that copies data from the input file to the jpc_msparms_t struct. The loop terminates on a value (numrlvls) derived from the input file:

    for (i = 0; i < compparms->numrlvls; ++i) {
      if (jpc_getuint8(in, &tmp)) {
        jpc_cox_destroycompparms(compparms);
      return -1;
      }
      compparms->rlvls[i].parwidthval = tmp & 0xf;
      compparms->rlvls[i].parheightval = (tmp >> 4) & 0xf;
    }
numrlvls is read from the input file. The attacker can control numrlvls to overflow the jpc_msparms_t struct and copy attacker-controlled data from the input file into a struct of callback functions (jpc_msops_s) that appears in jpc_ms_t (src/libjasper/jpc/jpc_cs.h) just after jpc_msparms_t:
    typedef struct {

      /* The type of marker segment. */
      uint_fast16_t id;

      /* The length of the marker segment. */
      uint_fast16_t len;

      /* The starting offset within the stream. */
      uint_fast32_t off;

      /* The parameters of the marker segment. */
      jpc_msparms_t parms;

      /* The marker segment operations. */
      struct jpc_msops_s *ops;

    } jpc_ms_t;

Any subsequent failures in decoding the marker segment will result in the destroyparms member of the callback struct being invoked as part of cleanup. If the attacker has overwritten this callback via the loop above, attacker-controlled values can be loaded into the program counter.

CVE-2011-4517: src/libjasper/jpc/jpc_cs.c: jpc_crg_getparms

jpc_crg_getparms is called as part of the decoding of a component registration (CRG) marker segment. This function populates a heap buffer with data derived from the input file (in).

The function contains an allocation size/type error. The heap buffer size is calculated using sizeof(uint_fast16_t) but the rest of the function assumes sizeof(jpc_crgcomp_t).
    jpc_crgcomp_t *comp;
    ...
    if (!(crg->comps = jas_malloc(cstate->numcomps * sizeof(uint_fast16_t)))) {
      return -1;
    }
    ...
    for (compno = 0, comp = crg->comps; compno < cstate->numcomps;
    ++compno, ++comp) {
      if (jpc_getuint16(in, &comp->hoff) ||
        jpc_getuint16(in, &comp->voff)) {
        jpc_crg_destroyparms(ms);
        return -1;
      }
    }

The attacker can overwrite the bytes after crg->comp in memory with arbitrary data. This is a heap buffer overflow, which is generally considered exploitable.

There are additional security implications here as well, however. The loop above is controlled by cstate->numcomps (cstate as one member: numcomps). cstate is allocated in a calling function, and is often allocated just before crg->comp. On some platforms the heap chunk allocated for cstate is located just after the heap chunk allocated for crg->comp, separated by only 4 bytes of heap accounting info. The accounting info + cstate (8 bytes after crg->comp) can be overwritten with bytes from the input file via the loop above. In these cases, the attacker can place a large number in cstate->numcomps to make the loop above iterate past the expected bound of crg->comps and copy an arbitrary number of bytes from the input file into heap (a heap buffer overflow). This enables the attacker to perform well-known heap exploitations, as well as allowing the attacker to overwrite other active heap allocations such as the callback pointers referenced in the previous bug description.

Impact

By tricking a user into opening or previewing an image file in an application that decodes images with the JasPer library, an attacker can execute arbitrary code or cause a denial-of-service crash.

Solution

Apply an update

Users who obtain JasPer from a third-party vendor, such as their operating system vendor, should see the vendor information portion of this document for a partial list of affected vendors.

Please consider the following workarounds:

Avoid processing malicious image files

Turn off image preview features in file browsers and other applications that use the JasPer library. Avoid opening image attachments from untrusted or unrecognized sources.

Vendor Information (Learn More)

VendorStatusDate NotifiedDate Updated
Artifex Software, Inc.Affected-14 Jun 2012
Debian GNU/LinuxAffected20 Oct 201114 Jun 2012
Fedora ProjectAffected20 Oct 201108 Dec 2011
Gentoo LinuxAffected20 Oct 201114 Jun 2012
Oracle CorporationAffected20 Oct 201102 Mar 2012
Red Hat, Inc.Affected20 Oct 201108 Dec 2011
SUSE LinuxAffected20 Oct 201108 Dec 2011
UbuntuAffected20 Oct 201108 Dec 2011
Apple Inc.Not Affected20 Oct 201108 Dec 2011
Juniper Networks, Inc.Not Affected20 Oct 201108 Dec 2011
Openwall GNU/*/LinuxNot Affected20 Oct 201108 Dec 2011
Cray Inc.Unknown20 Oct 201120 Oct 2011
DragonFly BSD ProjectUnknown20 Oct 201120 Oct 2011
EMC CorporationUnknown20 Oct 201120 Oct 2011
Engarde Secure LinuxUnknown20 Oct 201120 Oct 2011
If you are a vendor and your product is affected, let us know.View More »

CVSS Metrics (Learn More)

Group Score Vector
Base 9.0 AV:N/AC:M/Au:N/C:C/I:C/A:P
Temporal 7.0 E:POC/RL:OF/RC:C
Environmental 7.0 CDP:ND/TD:ND/CR:ND/IR:ND/AR:ND

References

Credit

These vulnerabilities were discovered by Jonathan Foote of the CERT/CC.

This document was written by Jonathan Foote.

Other Information

  • CVE IDs: CVE-2011-4516 CVE-2011-4517
  • Date Public: 08 Dec 2011
  • Date First Published: 09 Dec 2011
  • Date Last Updated: 14 Jun 2012
  • Severity Metric: 3.58
  • Document Revision: 39

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